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The United Kingdom’s B117 variant is circulating in at least 24 states, according to new data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID-19 variant surveillance. The CDC projects that the UK variant will become the dominant strain in the United States by March.
From any vantage point, the United Kingdom appears to be in the crosshairs of COVID-19: Weeks after a new, highly contagious variant emerged that fueled a surge in cases and fresh lockdowns, Britain was revealed to have the world’s highest coronavirus death rate.
But the United Kingdom also has a not-so-secret weapon of its own: A genomic sequencing program widely believed to be the most coordinated and advanced any nation has forged. In the vise grip of the virus, the Brits have gleaned key insights into the behavior and consequences of SARS-CoV-2.
But B117 is also notable for what it is missing: In this case, producing a negative result on certain PCR tests in the spike protein, or S-gene.
One of the S-gene mutations specific to the variant deletes two amino acids, causing that portion of the PCR test to show up negative. The coincidental finding known as an S-gene target failure has become an integral proxy to help track where and when the variant is spreading in the United Kingdom, where about 5% of samples from COVID-19-infected patients are sequenced, said Sharon Peacock, PhD, executive director and chair of the COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium.
That same tactic could prove valuable to clinicians similarly overwhelmed with cases and deaths but lacking high-level sequencing information on the virus, Peacock told Medscape Medical News. A British report released Friday states that there is a “realistic possibility” that the variant has a higher death rate than other cases of SARS-CoV-2.
“In this particular variant, a deletion in the genome leads to one part of the diagnostic test failing,” Peacock explained. “Several targets are positive, but this is negative. In the UK, this has been used as a surrogate marker.”
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Targeting an Invisible Adversary
B117 is not the only variant that produces this result, Peacock cautioned, “but in screening for it, you can have this in mind.”
“Since the UK is sequencing about 5% of the cases they detect, this gives them really important clues about what’s happening there,” said Anderson Brito, PhD, a virologist and postdoctoral researcher at the Yale University School of Public Health in New Haven, Connecticut, where investigators are creating custom PCR tests to detect the B117 variant.
Brito, who lived in the United Kingdom for 4 years while studying for his doctorate at Imperial College London, said a “major advantage” is the more unified process to collect and sequence samples. Crucial information — including the date and place of collection — comes with each sample, which fuels not only sequencing, but an epidemiologic perspective.
“They’re not in the dark at all,” Brito told Medscape Medical News. “I think no other country in the world knows better which virus lineages are circulating.”
The CDC launched the SPHERES consortium in May 2020 to coordinate the sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 genomes across the United States.
But American genomic efforts are “not as centralized,” said Brito, whose lab detected the first two cases of the UK variant in Connecticut on January 6. “We struggle to get samples, because they’re decentralized to a level where there’s little coordination between hospitals and research centers. They’re not as connected as in the UK. If we just get a sample and it has no date of collection and no origin information, for example, it’s basically useless.”
Global genomic collaborations include GISAID, an international database where researchers share new genomes from various coronaviruses. As of mid-January, the United States had submitted about 68,000 sequences to GISAID, adding about 3000 new samples every week and expecting even more from commercial labs in coming days, according to the CDC.
“The UK is definitely much more on top of looking for variants as they pop up,” said Gigi Gronvall, PhD, an immunologist and senior scholar at Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security in Baltimore. “The US has now turned that up.”
Warning From British Scientists to the World
Despite these genomic accomplishments, some British scientists say they have regrets too, wishing they’d known just how rapidly SARS-CoV-2 was actually spreading a year ago, when it hit western Europe.
That information was crucial not only for preventive efforts, but because viruses inevitably mutate faster the more people who are infected, said Igor Rudan, MD, PhD, director of the Center for Global Health Research at University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom.
“Italy showed us just how fast it was spreading and how deadly it is for the very old and people with multiple comorbidities,” said Rudan, who also editor-in-chief of the Journal of Global Health. “We wish we knew it was spreading so fast, and we wish we knew the threshold of cases we could allow to be infected before the virus would mutate.”
More mutations mean more new strains of SARS-CoV-2, Rudan told Medscape Medical News. “We’ve reached that threshold now and will see more of these mutations,” he said.
Despite its current struggles, the United Kingdom is reaching beyond tracking its new variant’s spread and trying to identify new mutations that might change the way the virus behaves.
Three features of any emerging variant are particularly important, Peacock explained: Is it more transmissible? Is it more lethal? And does it cut the ability of natural- or vaccine-induced immunity to protect people from infection?
“We need to sequence people coming to the hospital who are sicker,” said Peacock, also a professor of public health and microbiology at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. “Also, if anyone has the infection after they’ve already been sick or had the vaccine, we really want to know what that looks like” genomically.
SARS-CoV-2 has already logged more than 4000 mutations, Peacock said. But “knowing that viruses mutate all the time is not sufficient reason not to look. We really want to know if mutations lead to changes in amino acids, and if that can lead to changes in functionality,” she said.
For the moment, however, experts say they’re relieved that the UK strain doesn’t seem able to evade COVID-19 vaccines or render them less effective.
“Even though mutations are common, those able to change the viral coding are rare,” Brito explained. If necessary, vaccines could be tweaked to replace the spike gene sequence “within a matter of weeks,” he said. “We already do this for flu vaccines. Every year, we have to monitor variants of the virus circulating to develop a vaccine that covers most of them. If we end up having to do it for SARS-CoV-2, I would not be surprised.”
But variant-fueled increases in infections will require more people to be vaccinated before herd immunity can be achieved, Rudan warned. “If it spreads faster, we’ll need to vaccinate probably 85% of people vs 70% to reach herd immunity,” he said.
One lesson the COVID-19 pandemic has driven home “is to always be on your guard about what happens next,” Peacock said. Although confident about the genomic efforts in the United Kingdom to date, she and her colleagues feel they’re still reaching for a complete understanding of the evolutionary changes of the virus.
“We’re ahead of the curve right now, but we want to get in front of the curve,” Peacock said. “It’s essential to get ahead of what might be around the corner because we don’t know how the virus is going to evolve.”